As a late Christmas present, I have finally completed my Google Earth electoral map of Canada. I haven’t completed the three territory ridings of Yukon, Western Arctic and Nunavut. These ridings cover a huge amount of territory and would take me a lot longer to complete. Since I am hoping to complete the new boundaries in Queensland, South Australia and the UK, I’m gonna leave those three ridings for a later date. You can find the Canadian map along with my other electoral maps at my maps page.
Canada 2008 Archive
This should be about it for the Canadian election.
Ontario saw the Liberals lose a number of seats, mainly to the Conservatives with the NDP making gains. The NDP lost one seat in Ontario to the Liberals while gaining five seats in Northern Ontario and one near Niagara Falls. The Conservatives gained three ridings on the outskirts of Toronto, one in the far north of the province, and four ridings in Western Ontario.
Toronto is dominated comprehensively by the Liberal Party. Prior to the election, the Conservatives held only two ridings around Oshawa, a smaller city to the immediate east of Toronto. The NDP also held three seats in inner-city Toronto, including seats held by NDP leader Jack Layton and his wife Olivia Chow. The NDP lost the seat of Parkdale-High Park to the Liberals, while Layton and Chow held on. The Conservatives also won two seats at the edge of Toronto, Brampton West and Thornhill.
Central Ontario is dominated by the Conservatives. Only one of the eleven Central Ontario ridings was held by the Liberals prior to the election. This seat, Newmarket-Aurora, is a urban riding on the northern edge of Toronto, as opposed to the largely rural ridings that dominate this region. It was won by the Conservatives at this week’s election.
Eastern Ontario is made up of the rural ridings around Ottawa, bordering Quebec and New York State. Six of the seven ridings were won by the Conservatives in 2006, with the exception of Kingston and the Islands, won by the Liberal Party. There were no changes in 2008.
Ottawa consists of four fringe ridings held by the Conservatives, two suburban ridings held by the Liberals and an inner-city riding held by the NDP. There were no changes in 2008.
Hamilton, Burlington & Niagara covers those towns and the entire coast of Lake Ontario between Toronto and Niagara Falls. Out of the ten ridings, six are held by the Conservatives, while the three ridings in the town of Hamilton are held by the NDP. The riding of Welland, the only one won by the Liberal Party in 2006, was won by the NDP in 2008. All others remained in Conservative or NDP hands, respectively.
Midwestern Ontario covers the part of Ontario between the coasts of Lake Erie and Lake Huron. It includes a number of rural ridings, as well as one riding in the town of Guelph and three ridings in Kitchener. Prior to the recent election, the Liberals held five seats, with the Conservatives holding six. The Conservatives won three seats off the Liberals: both of the Liberal seats in Kitchener, as well as the riding of Brant.
Southwestern Ontario covers the tip of Ontario reaching close to the city of Detroit in the US state of Michigan. It has ten ridings. The five rural ridings are held by the Conservatives. The three ridings in the city of London and the two ridings in the city of Windsor were held by the NDP and Liberals. The NDP retained its three ridings, two in Windsor and one in London. The Liberals lost one of its two seats in London to the Conservatives.
Northern Ontario covers most of the land mass of Ontario, bordering Manitoba and Hudson Bay. The southernmost riding remains in Conservative hands. The other nine ridings were previously dominated by the Liberals, winning seven ridings to the NDP’s two ridings. The Liberals held onto one of these ridings, while five others were lost to the NDP and one to the Conservatives.
Manitoba elected eight Conservatives, three Liberals and three NDP in 2006. The NDP won the vast riding of Churchill, covering half of the landmass of the province, off the Liberals in 2008. The Conservatives won the Winnipeg riding of Saint Boniface off the Liberals.
Saskatchewan elected twelve Conservatives and two Liberals in 2006. A 2008 by-election in Desnethé—Missinippi—Churchill River was won by the Conservatives off the Liberals. The 2008 election saw the parties stay stable, with only one Liberal elected in Wascana.
Alberta, with 28 ridings, is the fourth-biggest province. In 2006, every single riding elected a Conservative, including Prime Minister Stephen Harper. In 2008 the NDP won the seat of Edmonton-Strathcona off the Conservatives in a surprise result.
British Columbia elected 17 Conservatives, 10 New Democrats and 9 Liberals at the 2006 election. Since then Liberal Blair Wilson became an independent and then a Green MP. The Conservatives won the NDP seats of Vancouver Island North and Surrey North, as well as the formerly Liberal seats of West Vancouver-Sunshine Coast-Sea to Sky Country, North Vancouver, and Richmond. In Vancouver-Kingsway, David Emerson, who defected to the Conservatives from the Liberals after the 2006 election, the NDP won the seat. This resulted in 22 Conservatives, 9 New Democrats and 5 Liberals.
So let’s start with the obvious.
Stephen Harper’s government was re-elected as another minority government. Harper gained nineteen seats on his 2006 performance, winning 143 seats, 12 short of a majority. Stephane Dion’s Liberal Party lost 27 seats, falling to 76, less than a quarter of the House of Commons. The Bloc Quebecois stayed fairly steady, winning 50 seats, down one from 2006. The New Democratic Party won eight extra seats to go to 37 seats. This is their second-best result, behind the 43 seats won by Ed Broadbent in 1988. It is also a remarkable recovery for a party that fell to 9 seats in 1993 and has almost tripled its representation since Layton was elected leader.
I’m going to dive into which seats changed hands in a moment, but thought I’d take a moment to examine the implications of the result. It’s important to remember that three minority governments in a row is generally very unlikely, and the Liberals were always likely to perform poorly in the campaign, meaning a re-elected Conservative minority is no huge result for the government. William Bowe at Poll Bludger has examined the idea that the performance of the Canadian government, as the first developed country to go to the polls since the global financial crisis, would give an indication to either the impact on conservative governments or on incumbent governments, regardless of their political orientation.
Most minority governments are defeated with a vote of no confidence, resulting in an early election. Yet Harper chose to go to an early election without a defeat in the House of Commons, suggesting he believed he could win a majority. The first half of the campaign suggested he would achieve it. Then the debates and the financial crisis saw the Liberals rise and the Conservatives fall. So increased numbers for the Conservative government does not indicate support for Harper’s economic policies, it rather indicates the dismal state of the Liberal Party. Harper won in spite of the economic crisis, not because of it. It’s easy to imagine that, without the crisis, Harper would have had more time to tear down Dion, and would have made greater inroads into BQ territory, enough to win the remaining 12 seats they needed for a majority.
So let’s go to the run of the board.
Newfoundland and Labrador saw a fierce “ABC” (Anything But Conservative) campaign from Progressive Conservative Premier Danny Williams over claims that Harper had broken a promise to the province. It has worked out. The Liberals retained their four seats and won two seats of the Conservatives, while the NDP won the last Conservative seat, wiping out the Conservatives and electing an NDP member in the province for the first time since 1979.
Prince Edward Island has four ridings, all of which have gone to the Liberals since 1988. This changed this year, with the Conservatives winning Egmont off the Liberals.
Nova Scotia saw very little change. The NDP retained their two seats. The Liberals lost one of their six seats to the Conservatives, and the Conservatives lost one of their three ridings with the re-election of the sitting independent, a former Conservative. Greens leader Elizabeth May fell well short of toppling Defence Minister Peter MacKay in Central Nova.
New Brunswick previously had six Liberal ridings, three Conservative ridings and one NDP riding. The places have been reversed, with the Conservatives winning three ridings off the Liberals.
Quebec saw very little change. The NDP and Conservatives each retained seats won in 2007 by-elections, while the BQ won one seat off the Conservatives in Quebec and lost a seat to the Liberals in Montreal.
Northern Quebec saw the Conservatives win Roberval-Lac-Saint-Jean, won by the Conservatives in a 2007 by-election off the BQ. Every other seat went to the BQ, as it did in 2006.
Quebec City, dominated by the Conservatives in 2006, saw the BQ win back the seat of Louis-Hebert.
Montreal, which was previously divided evenly between the Liberals and BQ, remains with a similar split. The seat of Papineau was won by the Liberals off the BQ by Liberal candidate Justin Trudeau. Meanwhile the Liberals failed to win Outremont back off the NDP, which became the NDP’s first seat in Quebec in many years at a 2007 by-election after being a Liberal stronghold for decades.
That’s enough for tonight, I’ll do British Columbia, Ontario, the Prairies and the Territories whenever I can. Also look out for final coverage of Super Saturday in the ACT and NSW coming up this weekend.
Polls close in Newfoundland and Labrador at 10am AEDT. The last polls in British Columbia and Yukon close at midday. Even though there is 4 1/2 hours gap between the opposite ends of Canada, there are staggered voting times which narrows the gap between close of polls.
I’ll try and update this post throughout the morning as the results trickle in. You can follow it all at the CBC Canada Votes website.
1:34pm: So I guess this hasn’t worked out well, because of Canada’s broadcast laws. I’ll post this evening with a full breakdown of results, but it looks like the Conservatives have gained about a dozen seats, giving them a stronger minority. The NDP have gained slightly, while the Liberals and BQ went backwards. Elizabeth May was not elected in Central Nova.
9:15am: It turns out that there are Canadian laws which prevent the broadcast of results to places still voting. This will probably mean that CBC won’t start broadcasting online until polls close in Vancouver. But there should be text-based results available online.
Canadians will begin voting in a few hours in their third general election in less than five years, which looks likely to result in yet another minority government.
The campaign has been split into two parts. The first part saw the Conservatives performing strongly, looking like they would make substantial gains against the BQ in Quebec while the Liberals would lose seats to the Conservatives and the NDP in British Columbia and Ontario.
The second half began with the two election debates two weeks ago. The first debate saw Dion impress with a strong result, as did Gilles Duceppe. The second debate saw the effect of having four left-of-centre opposition leaders collectively ganging up on Stephen Harper. Harper seemed constantly on the offensive, while the four others effectively worked as a team. Indeed, the only moments with serious confrontations not involving Harper occurred when the NDP and Liberal leaders argued with each other about who had been most supportive of Harper.
Even though Dion’s poor English meant he was the weakest of Harper’s critics, he benefited in the polls in the aftermath of the debate, as Harper’s poll numbers began to decline, first in Quebec, where the BQ took back its dominant position, then nationally.
The debate coincided with Canada being rocked by the global financial crisis. It appears that voters have blamed Harper’s government and turned against them on this issue, which contributed to the Conservatives’ decline. The NDP has also consistently polled between 17-22%. Since they polled 17.5%, this points to a likely increase and at the very worse a steady result. At some points during the campaign the NDP looked like they could have taken second place away from the Liberals, but that has since faded.
It’s important to bear in mind that the Conservatives have never lost their lead in the polls. At their lowest level of support the Conservatives were still 4% ahead of the Liberals.
With four left-of-centre parties running effectively all in opposition to the government, strategic voting has also been a factor. In particular, www.voteforenvironment.ca has become a central website in directing pro-environment voters to vote for the left-wing candidate considered most likely to win in marginal seats where two different left-wing candidates are running to win. In many cases the group has made a decision to support a less progressive candidate. For example, despite stating that the Greens’ policy is the best on the environment, the party is only advocating a vote for the Greens in the Nova Scotia riding of Central Nova, where Greens leader Elizabeth May is running against Defence Minister Peter MacKay. In two British Columbia ridings where the Greens are considered competitive the website is supporting the Liberals.
Anyway, here’s my prediction for the result:
My prediction: Conservative 120, Liberal 82, Bloc Quebecois 60, New Democrats, 40, Independents 2
This would change very little. The BQ would gain 9 seats, the NDP 11, and Independents 1. This would mostly come at the expense of the Liberals, who have had a particularly dismal performance, with the Conservatives losing a few seats. This will almost certainly result in another unstable minority government, and likely another early election. The BQ will hold the balance of power again, with the NDP and Liberals again failing to win a majority of seats combined.
Polls open at 10:00pm in Newfoundland and close in Newfoundland at 10:00am tomorrow. Last polls close in BC and Yukon at Midday tomorrow. The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts from half an hour before polls close in each timezone. I expect that means you can get coverage online from 9:30am. I will try and post some updates as results come in during the day.
Canada’s political history and practice is probably the most different from other countries in the Anglosphere.
Canada is a federation of ten provinces and three territories. It has certain similarities to Australia. Its federal structure overlays three large provinces and a number of small provinces, covering a large land mass. Unlike Australia, political battles are fought on completely different lines in each province.
In terms of population, Ontario and Quebec are the two largest, respectively having a similar proportion of the population to New South Wales and Victoria in Australia. These two provinces occupy a similar centrality in Canadian history, geography, population and politics as NSW and Victoria do in Australia. Like Queensland, British Columbia is rapidly growing as the third large province.
There are also the four provinces of Atlantic Canada, namely New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador, and the three provinces of the Prairies, namely Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan. The three northern territories each elect one MP to the House of Commons in Ottawa.
Most of the marginal seats lie in Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia. While Ontario is dominated by battles between the Liberals and Conservatives, the main rival to the Conservatives in BC is the New Democrats. In Quebec, where the contest has been largely between the Liberals and the BQ since 1993, the Conservatives have been challenging BQ seats in this year’s election, with the Liberals pushed aside. The seven smaller provinces all have variations on these patterns.
There are also great differences between provincial and federal politics. Neither the Liberal or Conservative parties have affiliations with provincial parties, even though there are a number of parties using similar names in provincial politics. There are many cases of politicians participating in one party on a federal level working with a different party on a provincial level without any difficulty. The NDP has affiliated provincial parties in every province except for Quebec, where the Quebec NDP split off after adopting a pro-independence policy in the early 1990s.
British Columbia politics is fought between the two major parties of the NDP and the Liberal Party. The BC Liberals is dominated by politicians and supporters who support the Conservatives in federal politics. Quebec is split between the governing Liberal Party, who is led by a former federal leader of the Progressive Conservatives, the Parti Quebecois, who has links with the BQ but has no formal affiliation, and the conservative Action démocratique du Québec. Political positioning in Quebec is often defined by one’s position on separation from Canada, rather than a position on the left-right spectrum.
The NDP has also been successful in forming governments in Manitoba, Ontario and Saskatchewan. The NDP has dominated government in Saskatchewan since the 1940s, yet has failed to elect any federal MPs in the province since 2004. The NDP is currently in government in Manitoba, and was in government in Saskatchewan as recently as 2007. NDP governments last held office in British Columbia and Ontario in 2001 and 1995 respectively.
Election results in both provincial and federal elections have also proven to be much more volatile than in Australia, New Zealand or the UK. Elections regularly produce results where third parties form government or nearly every single seat changes hands. Ontario in 1990 saw the New Democratic Party, who had been a minor party prior to a bad result for the Conservatives in 1988, defeat the Liberals and form government.
British Columbian politics also saw the Liberal government reduced to two seats at the ??? election. The most famous example was the 1993 federal election, when the Progressive Conservative government was reduced to two seats, with the Prime Minister and all but one minister defeated in their ridings. This is worth keeping in mind when considering the potential for radical change in the coming election.
The most obvious added dimension to Canadian politics is the significant francophone population. In addition to dominating Quebec, there are francophone Acadian populations in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia and french-speaking Canadians in Manitoba. The rise of Quebec separatism has seen French recognised as an official language. All Canadian governmental processes are communicated in both English and French. Indeed, many Prime Ministers were raised speaking French as a first language, including most recently Jean Chretien.
The importance of French in Canadian politics can be seen in the person of Stephane Dion. The Leader of the Opposition is taken seriously as a potential Prime Minister, despite having rather poor English skills for a senior politician in a country dominated by English speakers. In addition, anglophones like Stephen Harper and Jack Layton are required to demonstrate their French skills.
You can see this played out in the recent election debates. A French-language debate is held one night followed by an English-language debate the next night. If you’ve ever learnt a second language, you could appreciate the difficulty in being expected to debate complicated issues of policy in the pressures of a nationally-televised debate in a language you struggle to speak fluently. Greens leader Elizabeth May, participating in her first debate, struggled with the French language, at times bursting out in English and drawing blank on particular French words.
This complicated relationship between two dominant languages can make it difficult for politicians in attacking each other. Stephen Harper has come under criticism in recent days for attacking Dion over an English-language television debate where he failed to understand a question on the economy and asked the interviewer for a chance to re-do his answer. Harper’s attack on Dion’s credibility came off as being seen as mocking Dion’s language ability, threatening Harper’s support among francophone Quebecois.
If you want to see more about these issues, you can catch both English and French debates (translated into English) on YouTube. Below is the first of 13 parts of the English-language debate:
Canada goes to the polls next Tuesday for their third federal election in just over four years. After Liberal Prime Minister Jean Chretien retired in late 2003, new Prime Minister Paul Martin called an early election in June 2004, which saw the Liberals lose seats but form a minority government.
After serving in office for barely 18 months, the Martin government was defeated in the Parliament and went to the voters in early 2006, which saw the Conservative Party under Stephen Harper become the largest party in another hung parliament, forming a Conservative minority government. This government lasted until early September 2008, when Harper called an election, in anticipation of a no-confidence vote in the House of Commons.
Modern Canadian politics largely dates from the game-changing election of 1993. The Progressive Conservative government, formerly led by Brian Mulroney, was led into the election by Canada’s first female prime minister, Kim Campbell. The PC party was decimated, only winning two seats, after winning 169 in 1988. The Liberal Party won a majority of seats, forming a government.
The election saw the rise of two new parties: the western-based conservative Reform party and the pro-independent Bloc Quebecois. The combination of seat losses to Reform in the prairies, the BQ in Quebec, and the NDP and Liberals everywhere else, saw the PC government wiped off the map. Indeed, the BQ won 54 out of 75 seats in Quebec, which made them the official opposition, despite running in only one province.
There are five political parties with a significant role in Canadian federal politics today. The Conservative Party was formed in 2003 by the merger of the remnants of the Progressive Conservatives with the Canadian Alliance opposition, which had succeeded the Reform Party. The party is led by Stephen Harper, who was a Reform MP and leader of the Alliance prior to the Conservative merger. The party is the only centre-right party in federal politics.
The Liberal Party is the largest opposition party and dates back to Canadian Confederation in 1867. The party is led by Stephane Dion since the 2006 election. The party is considered slightly left-of-centre, but doesn’t have the same socialist history and trade union links of the Labour parties in Australia, Britain and New Zealand.
The New Democratic Party is a social democratic party which is the third party in most of Canada. It is led by Jack Layton, and holds 29 seats in the Parliament. It has strong links with the trade union movement. While it fills the same role as the left wings of Labour parties in anglophone countries, it has failed to become a major party, never forming a federal government in Canada. It is making a strong push in this election to overtake the Liberals, becoming the major centre-left party in Canada, as it has achieved in some provinces.
The Bloc Quebecois is a pro-independence social democratic party which runs only in Quebec. The party emerged in the early 1990s to push within Canada for more autonomy and recognition for Québécois, with an ultimate goal of independence for Quebec. The BQ has won a majority of the 75 seats in Quebec at every federal election since 1993. It is led by Gilles Duceppe, and outside of Quebec autonomy issues the party generally stands near the NDP on the far left of the mainstream spectrum.
The Green Party assumes a similar position to Green parties in Europe, Australia and New Zealand. Due to Canada’s first-past-the-post electoral system, the Greens have never won any seats in federal or provincial parliament. The party has stood candidates for twenty-five years in provincial and federal elections. After first polling over the 4% funding threshold under Jim Harris in 2004 and 2006, the party has broken through another barrier under current leader Elizabeth May. The party now polls over 10% in most polls, and May was allowed into the 2008 leaders’ debate after failed attempts by the Conservatives and NDP to block May.
The party gained its first MP just before the dropping of the writs, when Blair Wilson, a former Liberal MP who had resigned from the party in 2007 over allegations of financial irregularities, joined the Green Party, although he did not have a chance to sit in Parliament as a Green before the election was called. The Greens are targetting a small number of seats. May is running against Defence Minister Peter Mackay in the Nova Scotia riding of Central Nova.
As an introduction to the Canadian political system for Australians, I’ve posted this primer about Canadian political parties. I’ll post another primer on the peculiarities and differences between the Canadian system and the rest of the Anglosphere. I’ll also post before election day with a summary of the election campaign, including last-minute impressions.